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Superhuman powers are available to common citizenry

nanotechnology of recent decades has conferred powers to citizens that
would be considered superhuman by 21st century standards. These upgraded
“transhumans” could perform feats regarded as Godlike to denizens
of earlier times.

A suitably
upgraded individual – if transported back to the year 2000 – would be
impervious to weaponry and nearly impossible to contain. They could
morph their body into a seemingly infinite variety of forms depending
on the situation encountered.*

If trapped
in a maximum security prison, for instance, they could alter their own
molecular structure, allowing them to walk through walls.* They could broadcast electromagnetic pulse waves to disable electronic
devices, vehicles and other objects. Bullets and other projectiles would
pass through them with no effect. Microscopic cameras, distributed throughout
their body, would function as an all-round 360° sensor – covering
the entire electromagnetic spectrum and making it impossible for an
attacker to surprise them.

They could
sprint at lightning speed and cross a variety of dangerous terrain types:
even molten lava would present no obstacle to them. If necessary, they
could levitate from ground level to the roof of a skyscraper in seconds.
They could turn themselves invisible, morph into another person entirely,
or stretch their limbs like elastic.

In many
ways, they would resemble a comic book superhero or video game character.

They could
manipulate their environment in various ways, generating enough body
heat to light a fire, for example, or turning inanimate objects into
advanced nanotechnology tools, or modifying the properties of liquids.
They could heal a wounded person just by touching them. They could read
thoughts and emotions, or extract recent memories.

If standing
near others of their kind, they could link and combine their powers
to even greater levels – harnessing the power of local weather,
for example, or lifting objects weighing thousands of tons.

Their sensory
capabilities would be phenomenal. This 24th century person could view
individual atoms with the naked eye; or if they wanted to, use their
telescopic vision to see distant astronomical objects. They could hear
a whisper from miles away, or filter specific voices from a cacophony
of background noise. They could determine a precise chemical composition
just by tasting, touching or smelling it.

Due to
their various biotechnology aids and physical upgrades, they would never
require sleep. They could even survive without food and water – living
instead off the energy of their surrounding environment, which would
be absorbed into their photosynthetic, piezoelectric skin. This same
external layering would keep them at peak levels of physical performance,
as well as shielding them from the elements.

In fact,
many citizens of today have abandoned their homes altogether and taken
to a nomadic lifestyle, for this and other reasons. Often, a “home”
of today is little more than a small booth or alcove in the street,
where a person can temporarily recharge and recuperate, or utilise the
greater powers of the net. Even a person’s body is often temporary,
as they shift between various real world and digital environments. Much
of the Earth is now being transformed into a gigantic computer grid
where individuals can physically “plug” themselves in.

Not everyone
has opted to make this transition. Even now, there are segments of society
which are adamant in maintaining a natural, minimally upgraded human
body. These people are now a definite minority, however, given the practical
immortality and other benefits offered by transhumanism.




Voyager I reaches the Oort Cloud

The Voyager I probe has been travelling through space since 1977. It reached a milestone in 2012 when it departed the heliosphere and began to interact with the interstellar medium.* Its next milestone would have to wait another 300 years, however. By 2310, it has reached the inner part of the Oort Cloud – a vast collection of ancient comets and icy planetesimals, forming a gigantic sphere that surrounds our Solar System.* This begins at roughly 2000 astronomical units (AU), extending for another 50,000 AU. Its outer edge marks the end of the Sun’s gravitational dominance, beyond which lie stars like Alpha Centauri. The probe has long since been passed by faster spacecraft, which have already explored these neighbouring systems. It remains drifting onward as a historical relic, taking 30,000 years to pass through the Oort Cloud.


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voyager 1 future timeline



The Dounreay nuclear site becomes safe

In the mid-20th century, Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland became a site for experimental nuclear technology – including fast breeder reactor prototypes alongside nuclear propulsion for Navy submarines. The 178-acre facility, chosen for its remote location away from large population centres, remained in operation from 1955 until 1994.

In 1977, seawater leaked into a shaft packed full of radioactive waste along with sodium and potassium. This caused a catastrophic reaction, blasting off the steel and concrete lids of the shaft and littering the area with radioactive particles. In addition, tens of thousands of fragments of radioactive fuel escaped into the sea between 1963 and 1984 – believed to have washed away from the drainage of cooling ponds. This resulted in a ban on fishing within 2 km of the plant. By 2011, more than 2,300 radioactive particles had been recovered from the sea floor, and 480 from the beaches.

In 1998, the UK Atomic Energy Authority proposed a new timetable for decommissioning, with a cost estimated at £4.3 billion. Waste removal and the demolition of buildings began to progress over the subsequent decades. Teams working on the site used robots – including a particularly large, 75-tonne machine nicknamed the “Reactosaurus” – to dismantle parts of the reactor interior.

By 2025, all legacy Magnox fuel had been retrieved, and by 2029 all radioactive waste had been removed from the shaft affected by the 1977 incident. However, much still remained to be cleaned up. The site’s plutonium would not be repacked until 2060. The last building would not be removed until 2125, while the final “Low Level Waste” would take until 2129 to dispose of.*

Even then, longer-term radiation effects lingered, keeping the land unsuitable for human use. In 2020, a report from the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority presented a schedule of 313 years for Dounreay to be fully restored. By the year 2333, this decontamination process is complete.*


dounreay 2333



The first Americium batteries are dying

In the first half of the 21st century, Americium began to emerge as a potential new source of electricity for spacecraft.* This human-made element was a byproduct of the decay of plutonium, produced from nuclear reactors. It featured 148 neutrons and 95 protons/electrons, with a half-life of 432 years.

The much greater mission durations provided by long-lasting “space batteries” enabled a new generation of deep space probes to explore the far reaches of the outer Solar System. Lower launch costs, combined with ever more compact and miniaturised components, along with greater autonomy, made it possible to deploy large fleets or networks of tiny spacecraft at tremendous distances. Notable achievements in the 21st century included a partial 3D map of the Kuiper Belt, for example; Neptune and its satellites being explored in more detail, especially the moons’ surface environments; along with comprehensive studies of more distant locations such as Pluto, Makemake, Haumea and objects in the Scattered Disk, including Eris and Sedna.

These probes – some drifting for over a trillion kilometres – continued to send back data, for centuries. A few even reached the Oort cloud, providing direct measurements of its composition, spatial extent, gravitational interactions and other characteristics, as well as returning images of distant objects.

By 2460, the first batteries to incorporate Americium are beginning to die, more than 400 years after they first began operating.* The Solar System is a very different place in the 25th century, however, with travel times having shrunk substantially. Much faster and more modern craft (with light speed capability) have subsequently located many of these probes – upgrading/replacing them, cannibalising them for other uses, or returning them for historical archiving.


americium half life future



has been terraformed

the middle of this millenium, the Red Planet has been turned from a cold,
dead world into a lush, Eden-like paradise. This monumental achievement
was the result of human collaboration on a planet-wide scale. It created whole new industries and undreamed
of technologies.

The project
was initiated in the early 22nd century. From the outset, it faced major
hurdles. Aside from the sheer scale of geo-engineering an entire world,
there were political, social and cultural issues too. Many of the early
settlers on Mars actually wished for it to remain in its raw, primeval
state. Some had an almost spiritual connection to the place.
Like certain environments on Earth, they believed it held an intrinsic
worth and unique value that should never be replaced. To better it with
manmade artificial processes would somehow make it less natural, less

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These “Reds”,
as they came to be known, were a potent force during the early Martian
government.* They were a thorn
in the side of planning authorities, who faced not only protests and
demonstrations, but direct sabotaging of industrial activity from some
of the more extreme individuals.

On the
opposing side of this debate were the “Greens”, initially
consisting of mostly corporate interests. They included a greater proportion of cyborgs and transhumans, who became
adapted to the environment of Mars at an earlier stage and were thus
able to survive in the lower air pressures.

Over time,
the power and influence of the Greens began to dominate. Improved security
measures were introduced, guarding much of the infrastructure and terraforming
equipment from attack. Giant solar
mirrors were placed in orbit. Measuring tens of kilometres across, these
reflected and focussed the Sun’s rays onto the poles.


mars terraforming solar mirror reflector future
© Luca
Oleastri | Dreamstime.com


Other projects
included the seeding of artificial extremophile bacteria. These began
converting CO2 into oxygen. Vast swarms of nanobots were
later introduced, accelerating this process and offering a greater degree
of control, since they were fully programmable. They also helped to
produce nitrogen, as well as regulating the overall composition of the

A series
of enormous “heat factories” were constructed. These belched
out huge amounts of CO2 – much of it imported from Venus – which was converted by the bacteria
and nanobots. This also had the effect of raising air pressure.

To increase
the volume of water on Mars, comets and ice-rich asteroids were manoeuvred
into orbit. These were made to slowly burn up as they descended, without
impacting on the ground and causing damage.

This still
left the problem of Mars’ lack of a magnetosphere, which exposed the
surface to harsh ultraviolet radiation. Giant superconducting rings
were placed around the latitude lines – focussed mainly on the equator
– and buried deep below ground. These were thousands of miles in length
and took many decades to construct, but were sufficient to create an
artificial magnetic field.

By the
23rd century, frozen lakes and ponds were beginning to form in some
regions. This was followed by successful growing of the first lichen
and mosses, genetically adapted to withstand a harsher environment.
Entire seas and oceans began to appear in the 24th century, along with
the first trees and other flora, plus certain arthropods and insects.

A series
of chain reactions and positive feedback loops began to accelerate the
process, fueled by even greater technological advancements. By the 2400s,
a panoply of animals were being introduced including fish, birds, reptiles
and mammals. Eventually, it was declared safe for unaided, fully biological
humans to walk on the surface of Mars. Humanity had created a second


mars terraforming future timeline
Animation by Will Fox, using images produced by Daein



Nitrogen trifluoride emissions from 2000 AD have been naturally reabsorbed

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) is a colourless, odourless, man-made greenhouse gas – most frequently used by the electronics industry in the late 20th and early 21st century. It was required mainly for plasma etching, the cleaning of chambers in which silicon chips were made, along with semi-conductor and LCD panel manufacture. A number of other important applications were also found in the photovoltaic and chemical laser industries.

Present only in trace amounts, nitrogen trifluoride was considered an environmentally preferable substitute for sulfur hexafluoride and fluorocarbons. Nevertheless, it had extremely high potential as a greenhouse gas when measured on a per molecule basis, with 12,300 times the heat-trapping ability of CO2 over a 20 year period and 17,000 times over 100 years. Despite its low concentration, emissions were also growing extremely rapidly, from just 0.02 ppt (parts per trillion) in 1980, to almost 1.0 ppt by the early 2010s, a 50-fold increase.*

Emission reduction strategies were proposed in subsequent years* to limit its use and slow its contribution to global warming. The atmospheric lifetime – defined as the length of time that a molecule resides in the atmosphere before removal by chemical reaction or deposition – was calculated at 550 years. For NF3 emitted in the early 21st century, complete reabsorption by natural means would therefore take until 2550 AD.*

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nitrogen trifluoride future atmospheric lifetime



and other waste products are disappearing from Earth’s biosphere

of the remaining plastics, tin cans and other waste products from the 20th-21st
centuries have decomposed by now. They caused significant harm to the
environment during their time on Earth – injuring millions of birds, fish
and other animals.* Subsequent
generations of these materials were produced in ways that minimised
their impact.*


environment timeline future plastic waste
© Marpalusz | Dreamstime.com


2640 AD

The longest-running music piece comes to an end

To an observer from the early 21st century, the world of the 27th century would be largely unrecognisable. By now, large portions of the Earth have been converted into a mixture of computronium and enormous scientific instruments, alongside dazzling architecture and works of art, whose mere appearance would defy the comprehension of an unaided human mind. Despite these intimidating physical and structural changes, many cultural icons from humanity’s distant past have been preserved in their original form, even now.

Among the historical relics to survive intact – dwarfed by the surrounding, high-tech landscape – is St. Burchardi Church, in a small region of what used to be known as Germany. Inside this old building is a musical instrument called an organ, one of the few remaining examples in its original form.

In the year 1987, American composer John Milton Cage Jr. wrote a piece called Organ²/ASLSP (As Slow as Possible). A performance of the organ version began at St. Burchardi church in Halberstadt, Germany, on 5th September 2001. This was scheduled to have a duration of exactly 639 years. The piece started with a silence of 17 months, followed by a first note sounding on 5th February 2003. Various chord changes would occur every year or two, using a total of six pipes, maintained with bellows providing a constant supply of air. By 2030, there had been a total of 21 notes played.

On 5th September 2640, the final moments of this song are witnessed by a small gathering of natural, biological humans. Thus ends the longest-running music concert in history.* John Cage had written the piece, As Slow As Possible, to make a statement about the fast-paced life most people were leading.





has been terraformed

now, Venus has been transformed into a habitable, Earthlike world. The
planet’s entire orbit was shifted, bringing it closer to the “Goldilocks
Zone”, while its day-night cycle was accelerated from 117 days
to 24 hours.

were redirected from the Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt. These were guided
through the solar system and into the upper atmosphere of Venus, releasing
vast quantities of water.

Other techniques
involved the capture and removal of CO2, achieved by the
seeding of nanobots, which absorbed this and other toxic gases and replaced
them with breathable oxygen.

With lush
tropical oceans, Venus now has two large, dominant landmasses – Aphrodite
and Ishtar – along with a number of smaller subcontinents and islands.
The average surface temperature has stabilised at around 25°C.


venus map terraformed



The asteroid 1950 DA is passing very close to the Earth, possibly
on a collision course

kilometre-sized asteroid was first discovered in 1950. It was observed
for 17 days, then lost until 2000 due to uncertainties in the orbit.
In 2001, new radar and optical measurements confirmed a mean diameter
of 1.1 km with a very fast rotation period (2 hours), an orbital velocity
of 21.3 km/s and a dense composition of nickel-iron.

It was
also found to have a potentially very close approach to the Earth, on
16th March 2880. Scientists estimated a 1 in 300 chance that the asteroid
would strike the planet on this date – the highest probability of any
known asteroid at the time. Were such an impact to occur, it would be
catastrophic to civilization, given the size and velocity of 1950 DA.
If landing in the ocean, coastlines would be hit by 200 ft tsunamis,
running inland over 4 km. There would be major effects on the climate
and biosphere.

technology is so advanced by 2880 that the asteroid can easily be moved
to a safe orbit, if required.


asteroid 1950 da 2880
Credit: NASA






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